Sources (Endnotes)

Born into Slavery

  1. Jane’s birth year varies in the census records. Her obituary published in the New Paltz Independent on August 17, 1876 supports the year 1803 (clipping courtesy of the Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection, Elting Memorial Library, New Paltz, NY).
  2. Record for Josiah Hasbrouck in the 1800 United States Federal Census. NYC Department of Records & Information website, (accessed May 23, 2020).
  3. For more about the institution of slavery in New Paltz and the Hudson River Valley, see: Eric Roth, “The Society of Negroes Unsettled. The History of Slavery in New Paltz, NY,” African Americans in New York Life and History, vol. 7, no. 1 (January 2003): 27-54. A.J. Williams-Myers, Long Hammering: Essays on the Forging of an African-American Presence in the Hudson River Valley to the Early Twentieth Century (Trenton, NJ: African World Press, Inc., 1994), A.J. Williams-Myers, On the Morning Tide: African Americans, History and Methodology in the Historical Ebb and Flow of the Hudson River Society (Trenton, NJ:  Africa World Press, Inc., 2003), and Olive Gilbert and Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth (Mineola, New York:  Dover, 1997).
  4. The 1790 United States Federal Census shows that, out of total population of 2309 for the town of New Paltz, 302 of the town’s inhabitants were enslaved. There appears to have been twelve non-white “other free persons” living in New Paltz, most of whom we can assume were African American.

Jonathan Deyo

  1. Kenneth E. Hasbrouck and Ruth P. Heidgerd, The Deyo (Deyoe) Family (New Paltz, NY: The Deyo Family Association, 1958), 11. (accessed May 26, 2020). Ralph LeFevre, History of New Paltz, New York and It’s Old Families, 1678 to 1820, 2nd edition (Fort Orange Press, 1909), 270. (accessed May 23, 2020). Jonathan Deyo Papers, Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection.
  2. 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, and 1830 United States Federal Censuses. Larson Fisher Associates, Historic and Natural District Inventory for “The Locusts,” New Paltz, NY (updated September 2014). For more about New York's gradual abolition laws, see Vivienne L. Kruger, Born to Run : the Slave Family in Early New York, 1626 to 1827, PhD diss., (Columbia University, 1985).
  3. Gilbert and Truth, Narrative. LeFevre, History of New Paltz, 263.
  4. Deyo Family Genealogy, 11. LeFevre, History of New Paltz, 270-71

An Emancipated Life

  1. Thomas Wynkoop’s enslaver is named in John Wynkoop’s obituary in the New Paltz Independent, November 15, 1907. Courtesy of the Haviland Heidgerd Historical Collection. The obituary writer mistakenly refers to Dirck Wynkoop as "Gen. Derick Wynkoop," conflating him with his brother Col. Cornelius Wynkoop, who is believed to have greeted General George Washington in Hurley during the Revolutionary War. The reference to Dirck Wynkoop's grandson Edmund Eltinge supports that Thomas Wynkoop was enslaved at the Wynkoop-Eltinge property in New Paltz. 
  2. The family’s early home is mentioned at the end of John Wynkoop’s obituary in Cyrus Freer, “Death Book,” 52. Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection.
  3. Donald J. Bruggink and Kim N. Baker, By Grace Alone, Stories of the Reformed Church in America, The Historical Series of the Reformed Church in America, No. 44, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), 73 and 77. Thanks to Wendy Harris for bringing this and other resources on the topic to my attention, and for sharing a draft of her as-yet unpublished article about the Reformed Church and slavery in Ulster County, NY. See also Gerald Francis De Jong,"The Dutch Reformed Church and Negro Slavery in Colonial America." Church History 40, no. 4 (1971): 423-36, (accessed June 1, 2020).
  4. The 1674 provincial law is quoted in Jill Lepore, New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery, and Conspiracy in Eighteenth-Century Manhattan (United States: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2007), no page.
  5. Email correspondence with Kevin Cook, archivist for the Reformed Church of New Paltz, dated May 14, 2020. John W. Beardslee III, “The Reformed Church of America and the African-American Community,” Reformed Review (Western Theological Seminary, Holland, MI: Winter 1992), 105.
  6. Records for the Reformed Church of New Paltz, vol. 5, unpaginated. Jacob’s reminiscences appear in Cyrus Freer, “All About …” (history of New Paltz), 156. Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection. Kevin Cook described the undated diagram of the church floor plan in his May 14, 2020 email.
  7. Jane and John’s membership for 1848 is listed in Jean D. Worden, New Paltz and Plattekill Methodist Episcopal Circuit, 1842-1867 (Franklin Ohio, c. 1987), 145. Jacob’s work on the parsonage is mentioned in the New Paltz Independent, January 25, 1884 (clipping from the files of the Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection). Diary of Cyrus Freer, February-October 1896. Historic Huguenot Street Archives, New Paltz, NY.
  8. Laws of the state of New-York. containing all the acts from the revision of 1801, to ... [1812, 25th-35th sessions]. Vol. III[-VI]. Albany: Printed by Charles R. and George Webster, VI, 33. Josephine Bloodgood, “John Hasbrouck: A Most Estimable Citizen,” exhibit brochure (Historic Huguenot Street, 2018).

 Jane Purchases Land

  1. "United States, New York Land Records, 1630-1975," database with images, FamilySearch ( : [REFERENCE-ERROR]), Ulster > Deeds 1842-1843 vol 59-60 > image 1129 of 1531; multiple county courthouses, New York,(accessed April 11, 2019). For more on Maria Hasbrouck, see Kenneth Barricklo and Neil Larson, Historic Structure Report: the Abraham Hasbrouck House at the Huguenot Historical Society, New Paltz, NY (Woodstock, New York: Neil Larson & Associates, 2003).The aerial image illustrating Abraham Hasbrouck’s original village lot was inspired by a map of early land divisions in Crawford & Stearns and Neil Larson & Associates, Historic Structure Report: Jean Hasbrouck House (Syracuse and Woodstock, NY: Crawford & Stearns and Neil Larson & Associates, 2002). 
  2. 1830, 1840, and 1850 United States Federal Censuses. Ellen Mosen James, “Jacob Wynkoop: An African-American House-builder in New Paltz” in Society for the Preservation of Hudson Valley Vernacular Architecture Newsletter, v. 18 (January-March 2015), 10, (accessed May 23, 2020). Thanks also to Ellen Mosen James for sharing with me her unpublished article, “Black Voters in New Paltz, New York, 1821-1907.” For more information about the Ulster County Poorhouse, see (accessed May 23, 2020). 

Black Suffrage in New Paltz

  1. John L. Stanley, Majority Tyranny in Tocqueville’s America: The Failure of Negro Suffrage in 1846, 84 POL. SCI. Q. 412, 413 (1969) cited in Bennet Liebman, “The Quest for Black Voting Rights in New York State,” 387, (accessed May 23, 2020). Caesar DuBois first purchased land on October 18, 1831, see "United States, New York Land Records," (accessed July 21, 2021). Voter Registration Records for the Town of New Paltz, 1848-1860), courtesy of Historic Huguenot Street Archives.
  2. "United States, New York Land Records, 1630-1975," database with images, FamilySearch, ( 22 May 2014), Ulster > Deeds 1863-1864 vol 124-125 > image 993 of 1347; county courthouses, New York, (accessed April 16, 2019). Property values quoted from the 1855 New York State census and the 1860 United States Federal census.
  3. “United States, New York Land Records, 1630-1975,” database with images, FamilySearch, ( 22 May 2014), Ulster > Deeds 1855 vol 92-93 > image 387 of 1556; county courthouses, New York, (accessed May 23, 2020). Voter Registration Records for the Town of New Paltz, 1848-1860), courtesy of Historic Huguenot Street Archives.

John and Jacob Wynkoop

  1. Clipping from the New Paltz Independent, December 19, 1896. Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection. The clipping states that John “was formerly a slave and says that he was treated well,” indicating he probably worked as an indentured servant, perhaps for his mother's former enslaver Jonathan Deyo. The delineation between enslaved and indentured may not have seemed pertinent to John all those years later. Although there are no enslaved people enumerated in the 1830 U.S. Census, it's likely that some younger individuals listed as free were actually indentured. 
  2. John is listed as a laborer in several censuses during his lifetime. Various clippings from the New Paltz Independent mention John working for others, including those dated October 8, 1886 and December 4, 1903. John is mentioned as working at the “Lake Mohonk house” in a clipping from November 15, 1901. The paper makes several mentions in 1895 and 96 of John working with his brother Jacob on the house they built at 66 Church Street. All clippings from the files of the Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection.
  3. Cyrus Freer, “Death Book,” 52. Obituary for John Wynkoop, New Paltz Independent.
  4. Jacob’s birthdate is provided on a United States Department of Interior Declaration for Pension form, dated February 21, 1907.The date of Jacob’s marriage (along with Diana’s maiden name) is provided on a United States Department of Interior Bureau of Pensions form, dated May 3, 1898. Both copied in the files of the Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection.
  5. Enlistment Record, December 13, 1863, from The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served with the United States Colored Troops: Infantry Organizations, 20th through 25th; Microfilm Serial: M1823; Microfilm Roll: 20 (accessed May 23, 2020 at with subscription). Information about the 20th Regiment, United States Colored Troops, from the United States National Park Service website, “The Civil War,” (accessed May 23, 2020).
  6. Jacob is listed as a charter member in a record book for the Eltinge Post, G.A.R., in the Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection. Jacob’s obituary in the Kingston (NY) Freeman, August 28, 1912, mentions his service in the 20th regiment, as well as membership in the G.A.R. and that he served as chaplain pf that group for twenty years (courtesy of the Haviland-Heidgerd Collection, Elting Memorial Library).
  7. James, “Jacob Wynkoop: An African-American House-Builder in New Paltz.” Also “Never was a slave,” Jacob Wynkoop, Free and Black in 19th century New Paltz, an exhibit curated by Josephine Bloodgood (Historic Huguenot Street, June 1 to December 5, 2019) and later made available online
  8. Clippings from the New Paltz Independent, February 15, 1907 and October 12, 1876, courtesy Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection. 
  9. Obituary in the Kingston Freeman, August 28, 1912. Freer, “Death Book,” 71. Find a Grave, database and images ( accessed 23 May 2020), memorial page for Jacob Wynkoop (1829—25 Aug 1912), Find a Grave Memorial no. 102160041, citing New Paltz Rural Cemetery, New Paltz, Ulster County, New York, USA ; Maintained by Haviland-Heidgerd Historical Collection (contributor 47966167).